150 | Trade permit

The VOC ships Griffioen and Rode Leeuw met Pijlen under the command of Jacques Groenewegen arrived in Japan in 1609. They came with a mission: to sign a trade agreement. Nine years earlier, the crew of the ship De Liefde enjoyed a friendly reception, so they counted on a similar treatment. They were proven right, shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu was very

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